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Travelling on Kamchatka
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Travelling on Kamchatka
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Tolbachik (Tolbachinskaya Sopka) is a large volcanic massif located in the South-Western part of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes. The base of the massif is an ancient shield volcano, the diameter of which is 22 km, and the younger volcanoes Ostry and Plosky Tolbachik are located on its pedestal.
To the south and south-west from the slopes of Plosky Tolbachik is a flat-inclined lava plain with a length of up to 45 km, called the Tolbachinsky Dole. In fact, the dole is a cover of products of active volcanism, mainly lava, with a thickness of 200 to 600 meters, which was formed as a result of more than fifty eruptions. The last such eruptions were the Great Fissure Tolbachik eruption (GFTE) of 1975-76 and the new Fissure of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in 2012-13. The fact, that these eruptions are given their own names, speaks of their special power. The intensity of the manifestation of volcanism is the second only after the Klyuchevskoy volcano.
These eruptions occurred according to the following scenario: after frequent earthquakes a crack appeared, from which pyroclastics streams were beaten, ashes were thrown out, and liquid lava flowed. As a result, slag cones, several hundreds of meters in height, grew one after another, and lava flows poured out, changing the relief on the area of tens of square kilometers. On one of the cones you can still feels the heat of volcanism and light a dry paper or branch by laying it in a crack.
Северный прорыв конуса Толбачика
Мертвый лес на Толбачике
There is a mysterious and eerie place to south of the Northern breakthrough of GFTE called the Dead Wood - these are the tops of once large trees that were covered with a thick layer of volcanic ash.

The landscape of the Tolbachinsky Dole is similar to the moon, so at the time there was the base for testing moon- rovers and mars -rovers. The last remnants of the "base of moon- rovers " were buried by the lava flow of a new fissure eruption in 2012-2013. Also in the process of this eruption, two seismic stations and a house of the natural Park of the Volcanoes of Kamchatka were destroyed.
Volcano Plosky Tolbachik is active, its height is 3140 meters above sea level. The crater of the volcano is quite large - about 2 km in diameter and depth of up to 500 m, with steep walls inward. When the weather is fine, panoramas of the volcanoes of Klyuchevskaya group and lifeless spaces of Tolbachinsky Dole with numerous cones and lava flows are opened.
Volcano Ostry Tolbachik is considered extinct, its height is 3682 m above sea level. Visiting its peak is quite rare and mostly mountaineers on ice routes 2B and 3A category of difficulty.